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Owners’ right to information in a neighborhood meeting

Derecho de información de los propietarios en una junta de vecinos
Owners’ right to information in a neighborhood meeting

Limits on the right to information of owners in a neighborhood meeting

A client raises the following question regarding the Meeting of Owners where the change of elevators in his building was agreed. In the call it was indicated, within the items on the agenda, that the matter was going to be dealt with and then, during the Meeting, the Chairman and the Administrator indicated that they had considered that the best offer, in relation to quality-price, was of a certain elevator company making said offer available to the residents.

However, they did not provide the owners with any documentation about other offers other than the one that was put to a vote and finally approved by the neighbors.

Our client understood that he had violated his right to be correctly informed and, consequently, voted against the substitution agreement. His question now is as follows: can he, for this reason, challenge the board’s agreement to avoid being forced to assume his share of the cost of changing elevators?

To answer this question we must reflect on whether the community members have, like the partners or shareholders of commercial companies, a right to information that, if violated, could lead to the declaration of nullity of the adopted agreements.

The Horizontal Property Law (LPH) does not explicitly refer to the right to information of the owners, as the Capital Companies Law does with respect to unit-holders and shareholders (arts. 196 and 197 LSC).

In the LPH, only art. 20 e) when it says that:

it is the responsibility of the administrator: e) (…) to keep the Community documentation available to the holders”.< /p>

This lack of specificity forces us to interpret what is meant by this precept, who can exercise that right, at what time or under what conditions.

La Sentencia del Tribunal Supremo de 16 de abril de 1997 (RJ 1993\2887) señala que es una práctica aconsejable, que cuando se convoca la Junta, con un determinado orden del día, se acompañe con la citación suficiente documentación para un conocimiento previo por parte de los propietarios de todo aquello que se va a debatir y votar (cuentas, presupuestos, obras, …).

Pero no existe una exigencia legal al respecto, siendo suficiente con que en el orden del día figure con precisión el tema que se va a tratar pues es en la propia junta donde se pueden pedir las aclaraciones y los datos oportunos, sin que los propietarios puedan exigir datos o documentación antes o después de las juntas, que es donde únicamente se adoptan los acuerdos.

Según la mencionada STS, no existe en la LPH un derecho equiparable al que recoge la (antigua) Ley de Sociedades Anónimas cuando establece el derecho que tienen los accionistas a solicitar por escrito, con anterioridad a la junta, los informes o aclaraciones que estimen precisos, acerca de los asuntos comprendidos en el orden del día. Este sí sería un derecho de información completo pero, como no se dice en la LPH no se puede integrar si siquiera por la vía analógica.

Conclusión

Por tanto, podemos concluir que, aunque fuera recomendable para el buen desarrollo de las juntas de vecinos, es innegable desde el punto de vista jurídico y legal que, para poder votar válidamente el acuerdo, nuestro cliente no tenía derecho a tener copia de todos los presupuestos obtenidos por los órganos gestores de la Comunidad con anterioridad a la celebración de la junta. Por ello, este no podrá ser el motivo que sustente una demanda de nulidad del acuerdo adoptado.

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